The brain is the most vital part of our body and mainly everything major or minor is controlled by the brain even while we are asleep. For us to carry even the smallest of task proper functioning of the brain is required, to carry out any action brain draws information from sensory organs and processes it back to finally complete any task. In this article, we will go through why we need neurosurgery and what are the negative consequences of neurosurgery.

The brain has mainly three protective layers consisting of three sections –The forebrain which consists of the cerebrum and diencephalon- plays a central role in the procession of information related to complex cognitive activities, sensory and voluntary motor activities. Midbrain- functions in motor movement, particularly movement of the eye and in auditory and visual processing. The hindbrain consists of the cerebellum and brain stem – a coordinate function that is fundamental to survival including sleep and wakefulness, motor activity and respiratory rhythm.

Neurosurgery 

Neurosurgery

Sometimes our brain often being covered by all this bone, tissues and fluid which protect the brain are subjected to trauma, infections and abnormal growths and the only treatment is neurosurgery to save the patients’ lives.

The reason for neurosurgery could be anything related to brain haemorrhages in which there is an alteration of blood flow inside the brain.

Cerebrospinal fluids infections or brain tissue getting swelled or cancer formation.

Different types of brain cancer that require neurosurgery are schwannoma, pituitary tumour, lymphomas and gliomas.

Any kind of head injuries such as contusions fractures of the skull due to accidents also require brain surgery.

Procedure During Neurosurgery 

 It involves making an incision in the scalp and creating a hole known as a bone flap in the skull.

During brain surgery number of things could be done-

  1. Removal of tumours
  2. Clip off the aneurysm
  3. Drain blood or fluid from an infection 
  4. Removal of abnormal brain tissue. 

During the surgery sometimes the patient is kept awake. Sometimes the scalp is needed to repair and ligate the ruptured blood vessels and to remove any clot or abnormal growth.

Side effects of neurosurgery         

Like any invasive procedure neurosurgery also is associated with side effects. And as the brain is the master part of the body so side effects are much larger as in the case of neurosurgery.

The intensity of the infection is associated with which part of the brain is treated and how much damage has already occurred. In some cases, people have to learn basic skills like reading and writing.

Malignant kind of tumours in the brain cause great tissue damage and removal of all the affected tumour is required to prevent the tumour from bleeding.

Infections

It is an unwanted effect that is related to brain surgery. If bacteria comes in contact with the brain while surgery then there is a greater risk of brain infection.

Example infection due to Staphylococcus aureus can lead to inflammation.

Bleeding

There is cases of intracranial bleeding which is caused after surgically any malignant tumour is removed.

And this leads to haemorrhage and it causes an increase in pressure as the blood volume decrease leading to high pressure. This exerts high pressure on the brain and led to unconsciousness or death.

Other symptoms can be headache vomiting and loss of sensation (numbness).

Seizure

Seizures are caused due to unusual electric potential in the brain after surgery. These seizures are quite common and can occur immediately after surgery.

And these seizures are of two types:-

Provoked

If a seizure does not occur soon after the competition of surgery.

Unprovoked

When seizure continues for a long time after surgery. This type of patients is diagnosed as elliptic.

These kind of seizure are treatable via anticonvulsant drugs.

Stroke

Stroke is when the blood flowing in the brain experiences a sudden interruption. Vessels when blocked after surgery leads to a stoppage of blood.

When there is no blood the oxygen levels in the cell decreases and as the oxygen level decrease energy is not generated and led to the death of the cells. 

This kind of condition leads to cell death and can lead to paralysis.

Other effects of neurosurgery 

Coma

It is also a side effect of neurosurgery and the patient is unconscious and fails to move or respond.

Brain damage

Removal of damaged tissue lead to sometimes removal of some unaffected tissue this lead to damage which cause alter personality or requirement of rehabilitation.

Other symptoms of neurosurgery could be a problem in concentration, problem-solving, communication problem, weakness and coordination difficulties.

Allergic reaction to anaesthesia is also quite common.

References

  1. https://brain-surgery.com/side-effects-of-brain-surgery/
  2. https://www.britannica.com/science/forebrain#:~:text=The%20forebrain%20plays%20a%20central,are%20the%20midbrain%20and%20hindbrain.
  3. https://www.britannica.com/science/hindbrain#:~:text=Hindbrain%2C%20also%20called%20rhombencephalon%2C%20region,activity%2C%20sleep%2C%20and%20wakefulness.
  4. https://www.britannica.com/science/midbrain#:~:text=Midbrain%2C%20also%20called%20mesencephalon%2C%20region,in%20auditory%20and%20visual%20processing.
  5.  https://www.healthline.com/health/brain-surgery#purpose
  6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK234157/
  7. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_brain
  8. https://www.biausa.org/brain-injury/about-brain-injury/basics/function-of-the-brain