Insights Into The Blood Grouping

Insights Into The Blood Grouping

Blood grouping
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nalysis of different blood groups is done by performing a test for antibodies produced against a specific antigen present on the surface of the person’s RBC. Therefore, an individual can have anyone blood group from A, B, AB and, O based upon the surface antigen present on his /her RBC. The popular blood grouping systems are ABO blood grouping, Rhesus, Kell, Lutheran, Kidd and Duffy.

Different blood grouping systems. 

1. Lutheran Blood Grouping System

This blood grouping system classifies blood groups based upon the presence of Lutheran antigen on the surface of the RBC. BCAM gene is responsible for the presence of these antigens. The Lutheran blood group includes codominant alleles LuA and LuB. 

2. MNS blood grouping system.

This grouping system comprises more than 40 different types of antigens. There are two glycophorins A and B which contain MNS antigen. Two genes GYPA and GYPB which encode for the MNS blood group system. These genes are located on chromosome no 4. (Skov et al., 1991). 

3. Rhesus blood grouping system. 

Rh blood grouping system is one of 45 known blood grouping systems in the human population. It is the second most common blood grouping system after the ABO blood group system. It consists of 49 blood group antigens named D, C, c, E, and e. These are membrane-spanning antigens and were discovered in the year 1939-1940 by P. Levine, R. E Stetson, K. Landsteiner, and A.S. It is one of the most polymorphic and immunogenic blood grouping systems in the human population. The presence or absence of the D gene is associated with RhD positive and negative polymorphism.

 The Rh blood grouping system consists of 50 antigens among which 5 are very crucial. If it is Rh positive then D-antigen is present and if it is Rh-negative then D-antigen is absent. 

4. KELL blood grouping system

The Kell blood grouping system consists of antigens present on the red blood cells and is important determinants of blood type and target for alloimmune and autoimmune diseases which affect the RBC. The Kell antigen system is a group of antigens on the human red blood cell surface which are important determinants of blood type and are targets for autoimmune and alloimmune diseases that destroy red blood cells.

Kell antigens are proteins that contain a large number of cysteine residues which form a large number of disulfide bonds responsible for antigenic expression. These antigens can be destroyed by using reducing agents. The study indicates that this system has 34 different antigens, and Kell protein is a single-pass glycoprotein, Kx is a 10- pass membrane-spanning protein. The Kell protein has 665 amino acids, and a large extracellular C-terminal domain and an N-terminal cytoplasmic domain. Kell is the first blood group antigen to be identified after antiglobulin. 

5. Lewis blood grouping system.

Lewis blood grouping system classifies blood based on the expression of a glycoprotein called Lewis antigen which are present on the surface of RBC. Biochemically the Lewis antigen system is connected with the secretory system and this system, although their genetic loci are not linked. Le and le are two alleles associated with this system. Lea and Leb are associated with blood grouping. This specificity is acquired by the blood plasma. It has been mentioned that Lea is made from a precursor substance in the presence of allele Le when H and Se alleles are present lea is converted to H which further converted to ABO system type. WM Watkins studied the biochemistry and Genetics of the ABO, Lewis, and P Blood Group Systems.

6. Duffy blood group system.

For the very first time Duffy antigen was isolated from a patient named as Duffy who was suffering from hemophilia. They are presenting on the surface of RBC and are also called Fy glycoprotein. The Fy genotypes are predominately found in African and Yan black population. They are resistant to malarial parasite P. vivax. Diagnostic test was performed on 11 black and 6 white volunteers who were exposed to mosquito bites. Results indicated that 5 Fy blacks were resistant to the infection and the remaining 6 blacks and 6 white volunteers shrunk protozoal infection due to the presence of Duffy positive determinants Fya, Fyb or both on the surface of red blood cells. Duffy blood group and its associated glycoprotein have found to be associated with the survival of plasmodium vivax. The protein of this parasite (135 to 140 kilo Dalton in size) was found to bind with this particular glycoprotein.

7. ABO blood group system.

ABO blood grouping is the most widely used blood grouping system in the human population. It is based upon the presence or absence of A, B and AB antigen on the surface of the red blood cell. The ABO blood groups were discovered by Karl Landsteiner in the year 1901. The ABO blood group is encoded by the ABO gene having three different alleles: I, IA, and IB. I refer to isoagglutinogen (Ward et al., 2020

8. Kidd blood group system

Kidd’s blood grouping system was identified in the year 1951. It is encoded by 3 antigens Jka, Jkb, and Jk3. The jkb antigen is present in 75, percent ofglycoproteins whites, and the Asian population, on the other hand, jk3 antigen is found in all populations and jk3 is rare and is found only in 1% of Polynesians. Jk (a+b+) is the most common Kidd phenotype and is found in 50% of whites, and the Asian population and 40% of the black population. It helps in classifying the blood-based upon the presence of present on the surface of RBC called Kidd antigen. Kidd’s antigens maintain the osmotic stability of the erythrocytes by transporting urea. Antibodies specifically bind with Kidd protein and delay the transfusion reaction and erythroblastosis fetalis.

References

  1. Ajmani, P. S. (2020). Blood Group and Immunology. In Immunohematology and Blood banking (pp. 7-23). Springer, Singapore.
  2. Christian, S. G., Eze, E. M., Ezimah, A. C. U., & Buseri, F. I. (2020). Rhesus E, Rhesus D and ABO Blood Groups Distribution among Indigenes of Ogoni Ethnic Group of Rivers State, Nigeria. International Journal of Research and Reports in Hematology, 1-7.
  3. Jin, J., Xie, S., Sun, Q., Huang, Z., Chen, K., Guo, D., … & Zhou, T. (2020). Upregulation of BCAM and its sense lncRNA BAN are associated with gastric cancer metastasis and poor prognosis. Molecular oncology, 14(4), 829-845.
  4. Allen Jr FH, CORCORAN1 PA, Kenton HB, Breare N. Mg, a new blood group antigen in the MNS system. Vox sanguinis. 1958 Mar;3(2):81-91.
  5. Skov, F., Green, C., Daniels, G., Khalid, G., & Tippett, P. (1991). Miltenberger class IX of the MNS blood group system. Vox sanguinis, 61(2), 130-136.
  6. Center, B. T. (2020). Scholars Academic Journal of Pharmacy.
  7. Elsiddig, M. A. (2020). Association of ABO Blood Group Antigens and Body Mass Index in Sudanese Students in Faculty Medicine of International University of Africa (Doctoral dissertation, جامعة إفريقيا العالمية).‎
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