By Bhawana Sharma, M.tech Food Technology, Lovely Professional University

Introduction 

A substance (inclusive of manure or a chemical mixture) used to make soil extra fertile. Fertilizers are chemical that facilitates flowers to grow. Fertilizers are used to update the mineral salts taken with the aid of using vegetation or removed/washed away through the rain. Common fertilizers like ammonia mature (animal waste) which is turned into the primary fertilizer. 

Examples of fertilizer:- 

  • Plant nutrients  
  • Nitrogen 
  • Phosphorous 
  • Potassium 

Key facts about fertilizers:- 

  • Do not destroy  the soil 
  • Made from natural resources 
  • Different from pesticides 
  • Do not chase the DNA of crops 
  • Don’t make us ill 
  • Improve the physical property of soil 
  • Easily consumed by plants 
  • Predictable and reliable 

Difference between fertilizers and manure:- 

  • Manure is received from herbal or natural sources, while fertilizers are synthetic inside the factories. 
  • Manure is eco friendly, while fertilizers damage the beneficial microbes inside the soil and additionally lower the soil fertility.  
  • Manure is received obviously through the decomposition of lifeless vegetation and animals, while fertilizers are chemical materials and now no longer commonly natural.  

Types of fertilizers:- 

Organic fertilizers:- 

Fertilizer derived from animal waste, animal excreta, human excreta and vegetable waste. 

Fertilizer consists of animal waste from meat processing, peat, manure, slurry and guano. 

Types of organic fertilizer:- 

Animal based 
  • Bonne meal 
  • Blood meal 
  • Fish meal  
  • Fish emulsion 
  • Animal manure 
  • Animal excreta 
Plant based 
Compost 
  • Sea wood 
  • Soybean meal 
Mineral based 
  • Greensand 
  • Rock phosphate 

Inorganic fertilizer:- 

Known as artificial fertilizer, it is consist of artificial chemicals phosphorous potassium and different hint factors in organic fertilizers are frequently mined from the earth. 

Example:- 

  • Ammonium sulfate 
  • Ammonium phosphate 

Classification of fertilizers:- 

  • Straight fertilizers 
  • Complex fertilizers 
  • Mixed fertilizers 

Based on physical form:- 

  • Solid fertilizers:- available in various forms 
  • Powder 
  • Prills 
  • Granules 
  • crystals 
  • Liquid fertilizers 

Primary fertilizers:- 

Primary fertilizers or vitamins additionally called macronutrients, are the ones typically required in the most important amounts. 

Example:- 

  • Hydrogen 
  • Oxygen 
  • Carbon 
  • Nitrogen 
  • Potassium 
  • Phosphorus 

Secondary fertilizers:- 

Calcium magnesium and sulfur are critical plant vitamins .they are called secondary fertilizers or vitamins due to the fact plant life require them inn smaller amount or portion than NPK. 

NPK means: – Stand for 

 N- NITROGEN 

 P-PHOSPHORUS 

 K-POTESSIUM 

  • In the ratio of 5:3:5 with inside in percentage. The ratio range relying upon the meant use of the plant feed, and quantity of every supply this is brought to the mix. 
  • Fertilizer used by agro-ecological zone:- 
  • Fertilizer intake varies extensively among the AEZ attribute to the good sized variation in soil types, fertility status, crop, weather, rainfall, irrigation facilities etc. 

Fertilizer subsidy:- 

  • Over the years the goal in India has been to emerge as and stay self-sufficient in food grain manufacturing. Fertilizer is the important thing that has made by this aim achievable. 
  • Historically the fees of fertilizers have been stored under the price of manufacturing and importations, the costs of fertilizers in India, mainly of urea, are less than in evolved and neighboring growing countries.  
  • The goal in the back of the low charge is to keep a beneficial output ratio. The intension of the government has been to make sure that the farmer gets a fee that makes fertilizer use ideal and remunerative. 
  • The government gives a fertilizer subsidy to fill the distance among the price of manufacturing/ import price plus distribution of fertilizers, and their retail charges. 

The goal of creation of the fertilizers subsidy was:- 

  • To offer food grain to the humans at low-priced costs. 
  • To insulate farmers from versions in manufacturing expenses and to make sure affordable returns from fertilizer use 
  • To make certain an affordable go back to the industry 
  1. The subsidy on fertilizers is given to the farmers with the aid of using routing it fertilizers manufacturers. 
  1. The government of India added the retention pricing scheme (RPS) on urea in 1997 and on complex fertilizers in India 1979, under the RPS, a normative value of manufacturing became labored out for every company.  
  1. Urea endured to be the RPS until 31 March 2003. Effective from 1 April 2003, the RPS on urea became replaced through the group pricing scheme (GPS) the normative price of manufacturingis now labored out at the GPS basis.  

Advantages of making use of fertilizer to the land or field:- 

  • It will increase crop yield and improves bad exceptional lad 
  • Manure improves soil texture, recycles nitrogen and introduces critical bacteria. 
  • Pasture is advance so animals fatten up quicker. 
  • Crop developer faster. 

Disadvantages of use of synthetic fertilizers:- 

  • Crop develops faster as so as weeds, therefore herbicides sprays are required too. 
  • Better pleasant flora appeal to bugs so insecticides can be needed. 
  • Excess nitrogen from fertilizers receives into water supplies, inflicting fish to die. 

Advantages of using organic fertilizers:- 

  • Soil structure ( improves the soil structure through organic fertilizers use) 
  • Microbes thrive (it includes carbon as a part of chemical fertilizer). 
  • Sustainable and environmentally friendly. 
  • Reduce fertilizers and pesticides. 
  • Plant damage threat is avoided. 

Disadvantages of organic fertilizers:- 

  • Not all products are created equally 
  • Nutrients level are minor 
  • DIY compost is a tough procedure 

Beneficial effects of using organic fertilizers:- 

  • Increase each nutrient performance and natural count number content of the soil. 
  • Repair and preserve soil fertility to nurture plat growth 
  • Raise the performance of water use to plants for greater resilient and drought- resistant. 
  • Decorate crop resistance to erosion via means of enhancing the soil naturally content material. 

 Farmers use fertilizers:- 

  • Farmers flip to fertilizers due to the fact those materials compromise plant vitamins which include nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium. 
  • The position of fertilizers in meals manufacturing is typically underestimated. 
  • Fertilizers are meals for plants. 
  • Fertilizers update the vitamins that plants take away from the soil. 

Reference 

Maathuis F.J.M. (2009) physiological capabilities of mineral macronutrients. Current opinion in plant biology. 

McCauley A., jones C., Jacobsen J. (2009) plant nutrient capabilities and deficiency and toxicity symptoms, Montana state university extension service, Bozeman 

Fertilizer association of India 2003/2004. Fertilizer and agriculture statistic .new Delhi 

Singh M.V. 2001. Evaluation of present day macronutrients shares in unique agro-ecological zones of India for sustainable plants production 

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