Biosensors in the natural environment could have many applications, particularly concerning the soil and aquatic ecosystems. The development of biosensors is a highly active research area. These sensors are focused on the unique properties or capabilities of bacteria. Thousands of species of bacteria are broadly distributed on the face of the Earth are, and a specific strain of bacteria is found in specific environments. Therefore, bacteria of a specific type will be present in each type of chemical waste, and specific types of bacteria will participate in the degradation of new high strength concretes based on sulfur admixtures or biocorrosion of ferrous metals. In this article, we will have a look at the applications of biosensors for waste management.
Waste water In The World
Water pollution and habitat degradation are the cause of increasing water scarcity and decline in aquatic biodiversity. While freshwater availability has been declining through past decades, water demand has continued to increase significantly in hot areas with low precipitation rates. According to recent studies, at least 71% of the world’s population, equivalent to 4.3 billion people, faces some degree of water scarcity during some months of the year. Although the limiting freshwater resources are identified as a global threat, this is mainly alarming in South East Asia, North Africa, and the Middle East. Massive pollution of freshwater ecosystems has a diverse effect on the quality of well-known water sources. Wastewater is composed of different harmful materials that have been adversely produced and discharged from domestic, industrial, commercial, or agricultural activities.
Usage of Biosensors in Water Treatment
While freshwater availability has been declining through past decades, water demand has continued to increase, particularly in areas with an arid and semi-arid climate. Monitoring of pollutants in wastewater effluents is critical to identifying water pollution areas for treatment. Conventional detection methods cannot trace multiple harmful components in wastewater due to their variability along different times and sources. Currently, the development of biosensing instruments attracted significant attention because of their high sensitivity, selectivity, reliability, simplicity, low cost, and real-time response. Many biosensors are recognized for using critical organic chemicals, heavy metals, and microorganisms in dark waters for waste management..
Waste Water Management Through Biosensors
The characteristics of wastewater are composed of their physical appearances, chemical parameters, and abundance of microorganisms.
The composition and concentration of substances in wastewater vary widely and can be classified into three broad categories of (i) microorganisms, (ii) inorganic chemicals, and (iii) organic pollutants. They can cause adverse environmental effects. For example, disruption of endocrine and hormone systems, induction of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, and carcinogenic effects. The concentration of constituents in wastewater is essential for the selection, design, and functioning of treatment processes, as well as for the reuse of waste. The variable composition of pollutants in wastewater over time and locations caused increasing attention to the development of new technologies to monitor the waste products, using inexpensive and real-time strategies. Many quality indicators are routinely used to measure the different characteristics of disposing or reused waste fluids. Most of them are based on laboratory techniques, which require frequent data sampling, sample pretreatment and therefore are slow and costly.
These aspects support the necessity of developing new strategies that are more sensitive, portable, and efficient in the on-site detection of multi-pollutants consisting of a wide range of materials. The development of biosensors for the detection of environmental pollutants has received considerable attention in recent years.
And it will continue to grow for more applications in the whole waste management industry.
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